The Caucasus Region - Azerbaijan


Nagorno-Karabakh / Bergkarabach / Artsakh - A "state" will cease to exist -

A long lasting conflict
The conflict over the Nagorno-Karabakh region, also known as Nagorno-Karabakh (Russian) or Arzakh ( Artsakh), is an ethno-territorial conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan. While the origins of the dispute over the mountainous region, which covers an area of just about 4,400 square kilometers, date back to the 18th century, the fighting escalated into a war in the wake of the collapse of the Soviet Union. Between 1992 and 1994, this war claimed tens of thousands of lives on both sides and led to mass flight and displacement.

Although the cease-fire agreement of May 1994 ended the fighting, it has not yet been possible to transform it into a peace agreement and use it to find a lasting solution to the conflict. With the status quo more or less stable since 1994, Nagorno-Karabakh belonged to the so-called "frozen" conflicts: The independence of predominantly Armenian-populated Nagorno-Karabakh from Azerbaijan, declared in 1991, was never recognized internationally, but was militarily secured by Armenia, including through the occupation of seven additional Azerbaijani provinces, which was illegal from the perspective of international law.


In September 2020, Baku began a full-scale military offensive to retake the occupied territories after years of diplomatic deadlock. The cease-fire agreement, concluded on November 9, 2020, with mediation by the Russian Federation, established, among other things, modified border demarcations, creating new facts in the South Caucasus region.

But the cease-fire was fragile. In September 2023, Azerbaijan began a new offensive on the region.The very next day, a ceasefire was agreed upon under Russia's mediation. Shortly thereafter, Azerbaijan declared military victory over Armenia in the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict. The situation of the Armenian population in the region, suffering under Azerbaijan's recent blockade, had become catastrophic in recent months. After the offensive, a mass exodus of the Armenian population of Nagorno-Karabakh to Armenia began; by now, almost the entire population is said to have fled there. According to the plans of the Azerbaijani government, the "state" of Nagorno-Karabakh will cease to exist by January 1, 2024.